Showing posts with label Uncategorized. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Uncategorized. Show all posts

Common File Types with Extensions

Each and every file has an extension. A file extension or a file name extension is the suffix at the end of a file name that indicates what kind of file it is. For example, a JPEG image file has an extension like .jpg. Similarly, you can identify a file as text file if it has an extension like .txt.

If you don't see an extension after the file name then you should turn on a setting. Just double click on My Computer then go to the Folder options. Now click on the View tab. After 8 or 9 options you will find an option named hide extensions for known file types. Just turn it off. And from now you will be able to see the file extensions of any files.

Some of the common file types with extensions are as below:

Text Files
.doc            Microsoft Word Document
.docx            Microsoft Word Open XML Document
.log            Log File
.msg            Outlook Mail Message
.odt            Open Document Text Document
.pages            Pages Document
.rtf            Rich Text Format File
.tex            LaTeX Source Document
.txt            Plain Text File
.wpd            WordPerfect Document
.wps            Microsoft Works Word Processor Document

             Data Files
.csv          Comma Separated Values File
.dat          Data File
.efx          eFax Document
.epub          Open eBook File
.gbr          Gerber File
.ged          GEDCOM Genealogy Data File
.ibooks          Multi-Touch iBook
.key          Keynote Presentation
.pps          PowerPoint Slide Show
.ppt          PowerPoint Presentation
.pptx          PowerPoint Open XML Presentation
.sdf          Standard Data File
.tar          Consolidated Unix File Archive
.tax2010          TurboTax 2010 Tax Return
.vcf          vCard File
.xml          XML File

                    Audio Files
.aif                Audio Interchange File Format
.iff                Interchange File Format
.m3u                Media Playlist File
.m4a                MPEG-4 Audio File
.mid                MIDI File
.mp3                MP3 Audio File
.mpa                MPEG-2 Audio File
.ra                Real Audio File
.wav                WAVE Audio File
.wma                Windows Media Audio File

              Video Files
.3g2                3GPP2 Multimedia File
.3gp                3GPP Multimedia File
.asf                Advanced Systems Format File
.asx                Microsoft ASF Redirector File
.avi                Audio Video Interleave File
.flv                Flash Video File
.mov                Apple QuickTime Movie
.mp4                MPEG-4 Video File
.mpg                MPEG Video File
.rm                Real Media File
.srt                SubRip Subtitle File
.swf                Shockwave Flash Movie
.vob                DVD Video Object File
.wmv                Windows Media Video File

                                 3D Image Files
.3dm                Rhino 3D Model
.max                3ds Max Scene File
.obj                Wavefront 3D Object File

                    Raster Image Files
.bmp       Bitmap Image File
.dds       DirectDraw Surface
.gif       Graphical Interchange Format File
.jpg       JPEG Image
.png       Portable Network Graphic
.psd       Adobe Photoshop Document
.pspimage       PaintShop Pro Image
.tga       Targa Graphic
.thm       Thumbnail Image File
.tif       Tagged Image File
.yuv       YUV Encoded Image File

                            Vector Image Files
.ai                  Adobe Illustrator File
.eps                  Encapsulated PostScript File
.ps                  PostScript File
.svg                  Scalable Vector Graphics File

                    Page Layout Files
.indd                  Adobe InDesign Document
.pct                  Picture File
.pdf                  Portable Document Format File

          Spreadsheet Files
.xlr                    Works Spreadsheet
.xls                    Excel Spreadsheet
.xlsx                    Microsoft Excel Open XML Spreadsheet

           Database Files
.accdb                Access 2007 Database File
.db                Database File
.dbf                Database File
.mdb                Microsoft Access Database
.pdb                Program Database
.sql                Structured Query Language Data File

                        Executable Files
.app               Mac OS X Application
.bat               DOS Batch File
.cgi               Common Gateway Interface Script
.com               DOS Command File
.exe               Windows Executable File
.gadget               Windows Gadget
.jar               Java Archive File
.pif               Program Information File
.vb               VBScript File
.wsf               Windows Script File

                                     Game Files
.dem                    Video Game Demo File
.gam                    Saved Game File
.nes                    Nintendo (NES) ROM File
.rom                    N64 Game ROM File
.sav                    Saved Game

                      CAD Files
.dwg                     AutoCAD Drawing Database File
.dxf                     Drawing Exchange Format File

                        GIS Files
.gpx                      GPS Exchange File
.kml                      Keyhole Markup Language File

Web Files
.asp                     Active Server Page
.aspx                     Active Server Page Extended File
.cer                     Internet Security Certificate
.cfm                     ColdFusion Markup File
.csr                     Certificate Signing Request File
.css                     Cascading Style Sheet
.htm                     Hypertext Markup Language File
.html                     Hypertext Markup Language File
.js                     JavaScript File
.jsp                     Java Server Page
.php                     Hypertext Preprocessor File
.rss                     Rich Site Summary
.xhtml                     Extensible Hypertext Markup Language File

                                               Plugin Files
.8bi                    Photoshop Plug-in
.plugin                    Mac OS X Plug-in
.xll                    Excel Add-In File

                                              Font Files
.fnt                          Windows Font File
.fon                          Generic Font File
.otf                          OpenType Font
.ttf                          TrueType Font

                         System Files
.cab                       Windows Cabinet File
.cpl                       Windows Control Panel Item
.cur                       Windows Cursor
.dll                       Dynamic Link Library
.dmp                       Windows Memory Dump
.drv                       Device Driver
.icns                       Mac OS X Icon Resource File
.ico                       Icon File
.lnk                       File Shortcut
.sys                       Windows System File

                                     Settings Files
.cfg               Configuration File
.ini               Windows Initialization File
.keychain               Mac OS X Keychain File
.prf               Outlook Profile File

               Encoded Files
.hqx                      BinHex 4.0 Encoded File
.mim                      Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Message File
.uue                      Uuencoded File

                                Compressed Files
.7z                    7-Zip Compressed File
.deb                    Debian Software Package
.gz                    Gnu Zipped Archive
.pkg                    Mac OS X Installer Package
.rar                    WinRAR Compressed Archive
.rpm                     Red Hat Package Manager File
.sit                    StuffIt Archive
.sitx                    StuffIt X Archive
.tar.gz                    Compressed Tarball File
.zip                    Zipped File
.zipx                    Extended Zip File
                                                Disk Image Files
.bin                      Binary Disc Image
.cue                      Cue Sheet File
.dmg                      Mac OS X Disk Image
.iso                      Disc Image File
.toast                      Toast Disc Image
.vcd                      Virtual CD

                                   Developer Files
.c                      C/C++ Source Code File
.class                      Java Class File
.cpp                      C++ Source Code File
.cs                      Visual C# Source Code File
.dtd                      Document Type Definition File
.fla                      Adobe Flash Animation
.java                      Java Source Code File
.m                      Objective-C Implementation File
.pl                      Perl Script
.py                      Python Script

                                                Backup Files
.bak                   Backup File
.tmp                   Temporary File

                                   Misc Files
.dbx                Outlook Express E-mail Folder
.ics                 iCalendar File
.msi                Windows Installer Package
.part                Partially Downloaded File
.torrent                BitTorrent File

Explanation of Megabytes, Gigabytes, Terabytes...

In this post I am gonna explain the disk space, or data storage space, and system memory used in computing. We are mostly using the terms megabyte and gigabyte. In some cases we use kilobyte and terabyte. But there are something before kilobyte and after terabyte. 

You can have some more terms in the following table:

Virtual Storage

         Disk Storage

1 Bit = Binary Digit

8 Bits = 1 Byte

1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte

1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte

1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte

1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte

1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte

1024 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte

1024 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte

1024 Yottabytes =1Brontobyte

1024 Brontobytes =1Geopbyte 
           1 Bit = Binary Digit

           8 Bits = 1 Byte

           1000 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

           1000 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte

           1000 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte

           1000 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte

           1000 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte

           1000 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte

           1000 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte

           1000 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte

           1000 Yottabytes =1Brontobyte

           1000 Brontobytes =1Geopbyte

This is based on the IBM Dictionary of computing method to describe the disk storage. Let's find out more detail of the above terms:

Bit: A Bit is the smallest unit of data used by a computer. It can be used to represent two states of information. For example- Yes or No, right or wrong etc.

Byte: A Byte is equal to 8 Bits. A Byte can represent 256 states of information, for example, numbers or a combination of numbers and letters. 1 Byte could be equal to one character. 10 Bytes could be equal to a word. 100 Bytes would equal an average sentence.

Kilobyte: A Kilobyte is approximately 1,000 Bytes, actually 1,024 Bytes depending on which definition is used. 1 Kilobyte might be equal to this paragraph you are reading, whereas 100 Kilobytes would equal a full page like this one.

Megabyte: A Megabyte is approximately 1,000/1,024 Kilobytes. In the early days of computing, a Megabyte was considered to be a large amount of data may be similar to 1 GB of today. These days with a 500 Gigabyte hard drive on a computer being common, a Megabyte doesn't seem like much anymore. One of those old 3-1/2 inch floppy disks can hold 1.44 Megabytes or the equivalent of a small book. 100 Megabytes might hold a couple volumes of Encyclopedias. 600 Megabytes is about the amount of data that will fit on a CD-ROM disk.

Gigabyte: A Gigabyte is approximately 1,000/1,024 Megabytes. A Gigabyte is still a very common term used these days when referring to disk space or drive storage. 1 Gigabyte of data is almost twice the amount of data that a CD ROM can hold. 100 Gigabytes could hold the entire library floor of academic journals.

Terabyte: A Terabyte is approximately one trillion bytes, or 1,000/1,024 Gigabytes. Now one and two terabyte drives are the normal specs for many new computers. To put it in some perspective, a Terabyte could hold about 3.6 million 300 Kilobyte images or maybe about 300 hours of high quality video. A Terabyte could hold 1,000 copies of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Ten Terabytes could hold the printed collection of the Library of Congress.

Petabyte: A Petabyte is approximately 1,000/1,024 Terabytes or one million Gigabytes. It's hard to visualize what a Petabyte could hold. 1 Petabyte could hold approximately 20 million 4-door filing cabinets full of text. It could hold 500 billion pages of standard printed text. It would take about 500 million floppy disks to store the same amount of data.

Exabyte: An Exabyte is approximately 1,000/1,024 Petabytes. Another way to look at it is that an Exabyte is approximately one Quintilian bytes or one billion Gigabytes. There is not much to compare an Exabyte to. It has been said that 5 Exabytes would be equal to all of the words ever spoken by mankind.

Zettabyte: A Zettabyte is approximately 1,000/1,024 Exabytes. There is nothing to compare a Zettabyte to but to say that it would take a whole lot of ones and zeroes to fill it up.

Yottabyte: A Yottabyte is approximately 1,000 Zettabytes. It would take approximately 11 trillion years to download a Yottabyte file from the Internet using high-power broadband. You can compare it to the World Wide Web as the entire Internet almost takes up about a Yottabyte.

Brontobyte: A Brontobyte is (you guessed it) approximately 1,000/1,024 Yottabytes. The only thing there is to say about a Brontobyte is that it is a 1 followed by 27 zeroes!

Geopbyte: A Geopbyte is about 1000/1,024 Brontobytes! Not sure why this term was created. I'm not sure whether someone alive today will ever see a Geopbyte hard drive. But world is changing so rapidly that it might not be impossible. One way of looking at a geopbyte is 15267 6504600 2283229 4012496 7031205 376 bytes. Can you imagine how much time required to use this term practically?!

Now you should have a good understanding of megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and everything in between. Keep in touch to find out more in the future. Thanks.

Download Windows 8 Consumer Preview

By this time almost all of you know that windows 8 developer preview is available for download. But the latest news is that Microsoft has already released a consumer preview of Windows 8.

ISO images

An ISO image must be converted into installation media stored on a DVD or a USB flash drive. Instructions are provided on this page. Developer tools are available for download from Windows Dev Center.


64-bit (x64)                    Download (3.3 GB)                  

32-bit (x86)                    Download (2.5 GB)                  

Product Key:   DNJXJ-7XBW8-2378T-X22TX-BKG7J

Chinese (Simplified)

64-bit (x64)                    Download (3.4 GB)                  

32-bit (x86)                    Download (2.6 GB)                  

Product Key:   DNJXJ-7XBW8-2378T-X22TX-BKG7J


64-bit (x64)                    Download (3.3 GB)                  

32-bit (x86)                    Download (2.5 GB)                  

Product Key:   DNJXJ-7XBW8-2378T-X22TX-BKG7J


64-bit (x64)                    Download (3.3 GB)                  

32-bit (x86)                    Download (2.5 GB)                  

Product Key:   DNJXJ-7XBW8-2378T-X22TX-BKG7J


64-bit (x64)                    Download (3.3 GB)                  

32-bit (x86)                    Download (2.5 GB)                  

Product Key:   DNJXJ-7XBW8-2378T-X22TX-BKG7J

System Requirements

Windows 8 Consumer Preview works great on the same hardware that powers Windows 7:

  • Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster
  • RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)
  • Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) 
  • Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device or higher 
  • To use touch, you need a tablet or monitor that supports multitouch 
  • To access Windows Store and to download and run apps, you need an active Internet connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768 
  • To snap apps, you need a screen resolution of at least 1366 x 768

For more information, visit here.

Cheat Codes for GTA Vice City!!

GTA Vice City was released several years ago. This is somewhat old game now. But even it is very popular in the gaming world. Specially this game is suitable for the beginner. 

While playing the game or at the pause menu, enter one of the following codes to activate the corresponding cheat function. If you entered the code correctly, a message "Cheat Activated" will appear.

And never place a space between the cheats which has more than one word. Words are capitalized and separated so that they can be easily viewed and memorized. You should only type the words without any space and capitalization. 

Cheat Code
Health [Note 1]Aspirine
ArmorPrecious Protection
Weapons (tier 1)
Thugs Tools
Weapons (tier 2)Professional Tools
Weapons (tier 3)Nutter Tools
Raise wanted levelYou Wont Take Me Alive
Lower wanted levelLeave Me Alone
View media level when over two starsChase Stat
Better driving skillsGrip is Everything
Dodo cars (flying) [Note 2]Come Fly With Me
Rhino tankPanzer
Faster game clockLife is passing me by
Faster game playOn Speed
Slower game playBooooooring
Destroy all carsBig Bang
Pedestrians riotFight Fight Fight
Pedestrians attack youNobody likes me
Pedestrians have weaponsOur god given right to be ararms
Pedestrians enter your carHopin Girl
Change wheel sizeLoads of little things
Only wheels visible on carsWheels are all i need
Bikini women with guns [Note 3]Chicks With Guns
Heavy trafficMiami traffic
Pink trafficA Hair Dressers Car
Black trafficI Want it Painted Black
All traffic lights greenGreen Light
Romero's HearseThe Last Ride
Love Fist LimousineRock and Roll Car
TrashmasterRubbish Car
Bloodring Banger (style 1)Travel in Style
Bloodring Banger (style 2)Get There Quickly
CaddyBetter Than Walking
Pedestrian costumes [Note 4]Still Like Dressing Up
Lance Vance costumeLook Like Lance
Ken Rosenberg costumeMy Son is a Lawyer
Hilary King costumeL Look Like Hilary
Jezz Torent (Love Fist) costumeRock and Roll Man
Dick (Love Fist) costumeWe Love our Dick
Phil Cassaday costumeOne Armed Band it
Sonny Forelli costumeT dont have the money sonny
Mercedes costumeFoxy Little Thing
Cars float on waterSea Ways
Engines are fasterGet There Very Fast Indeed
Engines very fastGet There Amazingly Fast
All cars are fasterGet There Fast
Tommy groupies [Note 5]Fanny Magnet
Ricardo Diaz costumeCheats have been Cracked
Tommy smokes cigaretteCertain Death
Tommy is fatterDeep Fried Mars Bars
Tommy has thin arms and legsProgrammer
Good weatherA Pleasant Day
Great weatherA Lovely Day
Sunny weatherA Bit Drieg
Stormy weatherCats and dogs
Foggy weatherCant see a thing
Reguard targetAirship
Commit suicideI cant take it any more

Note 1: If this code is enabled when there is damage on your car, the meter will be reset to zero without changing the visible effects of the damage.

Note 2: You will not be able to fly a helicopter correctly when this code is activated.

Note 3: The women will drop guns when they are killed.

Note 4: Repeat this code to cycle through the various pedestrian costumes, including a cop.

Note 5: Aim your gun at someone and they will attack your target.

Presented by: Marks PC Solution

Leading OS: Windows, Mac, Linux

Any desktop, laptop or mobile devices like iPad or Tablet PC essentially needs an OS to operate. And there are numerous OS and OS manufacturers throughout the world. But most of them are out of competition. People only know about very few of them.

In this post I am gonna focus on OS Usage Statistics of Micro Computer- Desktop, Laptop and Notebook. 

In the above figure you can easily see the usage statistics / market share of the most used OS of the world. If you need even more, then go for details below:

Windows: Software giant Microsoft secured the top position by their windows OS. This is the most widely used OS in the whole world. Specially in micro computers it has no strong competitors. More than 84% micro computers run on Windows OS.  Few years ago, when it lunched Windows Vista, it faces serious criticism. But few years later when Windows 7 released Microsoft was able to recover their reputation. Now it is working with Windows 8. Trial of Windows 8 is available in the net. And hopefully within few weeks/ months it is going to be released with full features and support. 

Mac: Late Steve Jobs' Apple is famous for iPod, iPad, iPhone. But it also produce desktop and tablet. And their devices run on Mac OS. Not bad, but can't compete with windows due to its closed business system and high price of hardware. Though its market share is still very low, but there is a chance for them to grab Windows OS users. And they are always trying to capture the OS market. But Microsoft is really a tough friend as their chairman is Mr. Bill Gates! Isn't it? 

Linux: Now come to the world of open source software. Yes, I am talking about Linux. This is at the bottom  of top used OS. It has different versions of OS and they are often released few times in a month. Some of them are well known to people. Such as- Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Mint etc. Developers and IT professional like Linux and they are happy with it. But general people simply hate it due to its interface and complex system. If Linux wanna increase its share then it has no way if it fails to realize the users psychology. 

Others: There are many other OS too. But none of them are able to capture 1% of total market. List of other OS even may exceeds thousand! But nobody knows will one of them be able to access the top OS list or not. Here you can find the name of almost all OS.